2409-2425. HHS  |  m/kg). Relation between spasticity, weakness and contracture of the elbow flexors and upper limb activity after stroke: An observational study. The fractionation index was associated with duration after stroke in a previous study [22]. Kent, T. A., Soukup, V. M., & Fabian, R. H. (2001). (2006). Correlation between impairment and motor performance during reaching tasks in subjects with spastic hemiparesis. (2005). Rinkenauer, G., Osman, A., Ulrich, R., Müller-Gethmann, H., & Mattes, S. (2004). All muscle synergies extracted from all patients and all healthy subjects were categorized respectively into seven clusters. Here, we recap the theoretical framework underlying the identification of muscle synergies. wrote the paper.

Effect of trunk restraint on the recovery of reaching movements in hemiparetic patients. A previous study showed a change in timing and composition of muscle synergy in chronic stroke patients [18].

Jebsen-Taylor hand function test. Clark DJ, Ting LH, Zajac FE, Neptune RR, Kautz SA. Results: In total, ten studies were included in this review. ), Emerging Therapies in Neurorehabilitation II: Biosystem & Biorobotics, vol. and E.B.) Image credit: Noah Whiteman (University of California, Berkeley, CA). 251-272. 1). Regarding the number of synergies, the results showed high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.81, almost perfect). Similarity between the synergies of the two arms was quantified using the cosine of principal angles, which indicate the dimensionality of the subspace shared between the spaces spanned by the synergy sets of the two arms. Kim, H., Lee, J. Consistency of muscle synergies across subjects. Journal of Neurophysiology,98(4), 2144–2156. Jaehyo Kim.

(A) Reconstruction of EMG episodes collected during the task of reaching across a single spatial constraint. Numbers of muscle synergies identified for each arm in two stages of analyses.

Electrodes for each muscle were placed according to guidelines of the Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles—European Community project (SENIAM) and Delagi et al. We do not capture any email address. Contributions of altered stretch reflex coordination to arm impairments following stroke. The parameters of gait kinematics at the hip, knee, and ankle joints were detected as the peak of the joint angle during the gait cycle, as shown in Table 2. Changes in gait speed, SFBBS, and TUG were not significantly associated with the merging or fractionation indices. The high test-retest reliability was confirmed by the number of synergies calculated by NNMF. (2009). The Lancet Neurology,8(8), 741–754. (Eds. The R2 curve for the random data invariably increases from 0 to ≈100% with an almost constant slope. Movements can be factored into modules termed “muscle synergies”. Control of muscle synergies by cortical ensembles. A schematic illustrating how muscle synergies are linearly combined to generate muscle patterns…, Preservation of muscle synergies in a mildly impaired patient with stroke but not…, The stroke-affected arm muscle synergies…, The stroke-affected arm muscle synergies of severely impaired patients explained as merging of…, The stroke-affected arm muscle synergies of chronic patients explained as fractionations of unaffected-arm…, NLM Muscle synergies have been described as a neural strategy to simplify the control of the redundant motor actuators leading human movement and have been used to investigate motor coordination in healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Mussa-Ivaldi F.A., Giszter S.F., Bizzi E. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 91 (16) (1994), pp. Cirstea, M. C., Mitnitski, A.

The 2.5th percentile of the resulting set of 1,000 minimum cosine values then was selected as the threshold for determining the dimensionality of the shared subspace. Other parameters including BI, TUG, and BBS also significantly improved. Cirstea, M. C., & Levin, M. F. (2000). Furthermore, the ranges of hip and knee joints had increased since the first measurement; however, the ankle joint range did not show a consistent change.

Coscia M., Monaco V., Martelloni C., Rossi B., Chisari C., Micera S. Gizzi L., Nielsen J.F., Felici F., Ivanenko Y.P., Farina D. Cheung V.C., Piron L., Agostini M., Silvoni S., Turolla A., Bizzi E. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 106 (46) (2009), pp. Eng. Then, we successively increased the number of shared synergies, starting from one, until the specific synergies for each arm became dissimilar (as assessed by principal angles; see Synergy Similarity) from those for the other arm. Only Tibialis Anterior, Soleus, Gastrocnemius and Rectus Femoris were assessed in all studies. Wolf, S. L., Lecraw, D. E., Barton, L. A., & Jann, B.

This observation implies that poststroke neuronal loss alters the cortical activation pattern for downstream muscle synergies, leading to motor dysfunctions in the affected arm. Interestingly, this patient was also the one with the lowest Fugl-Meyer score for the upper extremity (18 out of 66).

Other limitations were the small number of gait cycles assessed and use of a cane by some patients. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. These patterns varied as a function of both the severity of functional impairment and the temporal distance from stroke onset. Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the number of muscle synergies and the distribution of muscle weightings in stroke patients during gait. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. On the locus of speed-accuracy trade-off in reaction time: Inferences from the lateralized readiness potential. Of the five principal angles between these two synergy sets (Fig.

The Brunnstrom Approach, on the other hand, teaches patients how to use the abnormal synergy patterns …

The figures show the merging (solid line) and fractionation (dotted line) of the synergies at the first (gray) and second measurements (black). However, one cluster in the severe group was governed by two channels. Schlaeger R., Papinutto N., Panara V., Bevan C., Lobach I.V., Bucci M.. Hesse S., Schmidt H., Werner C., Bardeleben A. Curr Opin Neurol, 16 (6) (2003), pp. eCollection 2020. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; ; Multidisciplinary Motor Centre Antwerp (MOCEAN), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; ; Multidisciplinary Motor Centre Antwerp (MOCEAN), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; ; RevArte Rehabilitation Hospital, Edegem, Belgium, /doi/full/10.1080/09638288.2019.1578421?needAccess=true. Stroke is a neurological accident caused by the interruption of blood supply to the brain. Here, instead of viewing cortical activities as encoding certain movement parameters, we ask the question of whether cortical signals represent neuronal drives that select, activate, and combine in a flexible way muscle synergies specified by networks in the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Muscle synergies during the two DOF reaching tasks with trunk restraint showed differences in extensors between healthy individuals and patients with stroke. The group with merging (b) showed limitation in the range of the ankle joint angle. Muscle Synergies in Stroke. 2010 Feb;103(2):844-57. doi: 10.1152/jn.00825.2009. Subjects performed two DOF reaching … In addition, the kinematics did not show a significant change between two measurements. Liu, J., Kang, S. H., Xu, D., Ren, Y., Lee, S. J., & Zhang, L. Q. We investigated this question with muscle recordings from stroke patients having unilateral lesions in the frontal lobe, which severely impair motor performance by interfering with descending neural commands for the spinal cord or brainstem. Cheung V.C., d'Avella A., Tresch M.C., Bizzi E. J Neurosci, 25 (27) (2005), pp. NIH Alterations in upper limb muscle synergy structure in chronic stroke survivors. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. We speculate that in this patient compensatory motor strategies for the affected limb have emerged from the plasticity of the surviving neurons, resulting in the synergies activating the affected arm more different from those moving the unaffected arm. Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Brain,112(1), 85–102. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Previous studies have determined that the number of synergies required to describe muscle activity is reduced after stroke. 310-318. Langhorne, P., Coupar, F., & Pollock, A. Journal of Neural Engineering,12(4), 046017.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12541-019-00251-5. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,133(2), 261.

Lencioni T., Jonsdottir J., Cattaneo D., Crippa A., Gervasoni E., Rovaris M.. Jo H.J., Mattos D., Lucassen E.B., Huang X., Latash M.L. Cheung V.C., Turolla A., Agostini M., Silvoni S., Bennis C., Kasi P., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 109 (36) (2012), pp. 605-619, J Neurophysiol, 95 (4) (2006), pp. USA.gov. The muscle waveforms produced by scaling synergies with their coefficients then are summed across synergies to explain the recorded EMGs (thick blue lines). Schieber MH, Lang CE, Reilly KT, McNulty P, Sirigu A. Adv Exp Med Biol. As a longitudinal change in present study, the present results suggest that higher merging index was associated with poor improvement of outcome, such as muscle strength and gait kinematics. Online ISSN 1091-6490. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Model of muscle pattern generation by a combination of muscle synergies. However, the fractionation index was related to the improvement in ADL. Clark D.J., Ting L.H., Zajac F.E., Neptune R.R., Kautz S.A. J Neurophysiol, 103 (2) (2010), pp. Such a robustness of the muscle synergies across arms and cortical lesion types suggests that these synergies are structured most likely by neuronal networks downstream of the neocortex, such as the spinal interneuronal circuitries and/or neurons in the brainstem nuclei.

Merging of healthy motor modules predicts reduced locomotor performance and muscle coordination complexity post-stroke. The decrease in amount of synergies can be explained by merging of synergies, often seen in hip/knee extensors with plantar flexors and hip/knee extensors with knee flexors.

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